The Sa’wkele, The Ku-Ku, The Boqta, The Henin: How the Mongol Occupation of Europe Changed European Women’s Fashion Forever
One of the most immediately recognizable symbols of the European Middle Ages is the towering, often conical or cylindrical, women’s headdresses popular throughout Europe in the 15th century. To this day, the tall, often veil-decorated “Princess Hat” is immediately known even to American children as a sign of feminine stature, nobility, and elegance. Tiny, cheap versions of this hat are sold to women and little girls by the millions at Renaissance Faires, theme parks, costume shops, and carnivals all over the United States. They look something like this:
In just about every American imagination, nothing is more essentially European than the elaborate, gravity-defying tall headdress or henin worn by the noblest women of history. Indeed, the European Henin is synonymous to many Americans as a visual symbol of frail feminity, “Faire Maydens”, milky complexions and delicate white women who must be protected by knights, preferably in shining armor.
(psst. notice people of color in this miniature from Boccaccio’s The Fall of Princes: more on that in later posts)
But what if I told you the heads this historical hat truly belongs on are not only those of women of color, but unrivaled Warrior Queens who ruled a vast empire, went to war with infant sons strapped to their backs, and commanded armies of tens of thousands?
There is something that not even doctorate-holding Western Medievalists and Medieval Fashion experts will tell you, and may not even be aware of: The Henin did not spring out of nothingness to adorn the heads of European noblewomen.
The European Henin is modeled directly after the willow-withe and felt Boqta (Ku-Ku) of Mongolian Queens, which could reach over five to seven feet in height.
Mongolian women’s boqta also had a special role: because men and women’s clothing were more or less exactly the same in design, appearance and function, reflecting thousands of years of more or less equal rights between the genders, the women’s tall headdresses served to differentiate men and women from a distance.
Mongolian equestrian culture influenced fashion as well as martial technology: the headdresses would have been even more impressive on horseback. The higher a woman’s position, the taller, richer, and more elaborately decorated the headdress.
The important cultural role of the headdress is elaborated upon in Weatherford’s Secret History of the Mongol Queens, in this portion about the warrior Queen Maduhai as she prepares to lead her soldiers to war:
The chronicles all agree that she fixed her hair to accommodate her quiver. The hairstyle of noble married women of that era precluded fighting or any other manual endeavor. She removed the headdress of peace and put on her helmet for war.
By taking off her queenly headdress, known as the boqta, she removed virtually the only piece of clothing that separated a man from a woman. The boqta ranks as one of the most ostentatious headdresses of history, but it had been highly treasured by noble Mongol women since the founding of the empire.* The head structure of willow branches, covered with green felt, rose in a narrow column three to four feet high, gradually changing from a round base to a square top…The higher the rank, the more elaborate the boqta, and as a queen, Mandhui would have worn a highly elaborate one. A variety of decorative items such as peacock or mallard feathers adorned the top with a loose attachment that kept them upright but allowed them to flutter high above the woman’s head.
The contraption struck many foreign visitors as odd**, but the Mongol Empire had enjoyed such prestige that medieval women of Europe imitated it with the hennin, a large cone-shaped headdress that sat towards the back of the head rather than rising straight up from it as among the Mongols. With no good source of peacock feathers, European noblewomen generally substituted gauzy streamers flowing in the wind at the top.
* The ebook preview is truncated. I happen to own the book and have typed out the rest of the passage from hard copy.
** This statement reflects the bias of the author (Weatherford)-forgeign visitors found the boqta overwhelmingly impressive statements of wealth. For primary source description contemporaneous with women in the boqta (c. the 1200s), keep reading below the cut!
FULL HISTORY OF THE BOQTA, MORE PHOTOS AND LINKS BELOW THE CUT!
There’s actually records of this in fashion/costume history:
Although Flanders has the reputation of their [hennin’s] introduction, I much suspect their origin to have been Oriental and of great antiquity.
— A Cyclopedia of Costume vol. II a General History of Costume in Europe. pg. 128, c. 1879.
It’s worth noting, however, that many other West Asian civilizations have also had pointed hats or crowns (as well as African civilizations) and while the Mongolian connection is made with the hennin, there are dozens of instances of pointed hats from Turkey and further east. One of many interesting crossing points of fashion! The Secret History of the Mongol Queens is, incidentally a very enjoyable read and one of the first things I mentioned on this blog because it is very fascinating (and stretches very far with not much information, admittedly).
Fancy hats, turns out everyone loves that shit.
the Mongols are one of the most interesting civilizations ever. there was an exhibit in the Field Museum in Chicago when I visited a year or so ago and it was extremely cool. they were so administratively and philosophically sophisticated, ruled the largest contiguous land empire in history, and were actually extremely tolerant towards other cultures once the actual conquering bit was done.
Citizens of Samarkand have very little to say about the Mongols’ tolerance of Transoxonian culture…mostly due to their skulls being in stacked in pyramids making it a little difficult to express such opinions…but all that molten silver certainly isn’t helping things…
On the upside, you know, we did get the Black Plague out of the Mongols…
So there’s that.
If you add the Black Plague (first run through Medieval Europe)…
You get a kinda impressive body count.
If the Mongols didn’t kill you and your entire city, you had a pretty good chance of being treated with a fairly mild hand by your new Mongol overlords…just as long as you didn’t do anything that pissed them off…
Just to make sure many of their new subjects would behave, they had a habit (good for them, bad for their subjects) of tearing down city walls whenever they encountered them, sieges being the one thing that the Steppe horsemen found difficult to deal with, what with not being able to jump a wall like you’re practicing for steeplechase at Royal Wopping Ascot or whatever…
I SMELL AN ANTHROPOLOGIST
My personal blog full of history, art, photography, poetry, rambles, rants, and oddities from the wonderful worlds of anthropology and Medieval Studies.
I hold a degree in Medieval Studies from a reputable university in the Midwest.
Did you skip class? Because it sounds like your Midwestern Education might have been a bit lacking in some areas…..Let’s have a reading session, shall we?
……..wow, i wonder how religious tolerance was going in Europe around that time…….
……….ummm, but what about the treatment of women! surely the Mongols were horrific, slavering barbarians intent on subjugation and exploitation of women….
But hey! I’m sure the elevated, cultured, civilized EUROPEANS never did ANYTHING so horrible as those SAVAGE Mongolians…..
2. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades: 1000-1300 - John France
Absolutely. That’s not to say that the Mongolian empire didn’t slaughter people at impressive rates, because they did, but this was hardly unusual given previous empires and the contemporary time period. You don’t obtain the largest contiguous landmass Empire by simply killing everyone without regards to politics, diplomacy, or government. It just can’t be done, and the impression that an Empire could function just based off of executing everyone is silly. The infrastructure simply wouldn’t survive as well as it did.
I just want to let everyone know that I won’t be reblogging anymore- I’ll be favorite’ing. ‘Cause it’s so much easier, and I looked and saw that I had three times more favorites than reblogged stuff. I wish I could randomize my favorites, select them all, and mass-queue. I don’t care what you think, frankly. No one ever favorites my stuff or messages me, so whatever. It’s just not worth the effort.
So tedious, so… troublesome.